The only surefire way to know if you carry the gene mutation leading to tetrachromacy is to have a genetic test done for that specific gene, since sometimes the mutation isn’t expressed in a way that gives you superhuman color-detecting abilities. However, researchers have found a few ways to determine if you might carry this specific mutation. For example, the Newcastle University Tetrachromacy Project looks for participants with a male relative with a color anomaly in the red and green areas, since they are more likely to pass on the gene.
Additional testing is also completed to test a person’s ability to distinguish between two shades of a color. According to Healthline, those with a tetrachromacy gene can accurately detect color variations or similarities every time they look at them, while those without the mutation cannot. You can try out these tests online, but the variations in screens might lead to a false positive; therefore, it’s best to get the testing done in a facility that can ensure accurate results.
Why does it matter? Understanding this phenomenon can also have impacts on the world, as stated by Dr. Kristopher Jake Patten in Psychology Today. He told the publication, “Embracing the differences of tetrachromacy could yield similar advances. A few recent studies have shown that people are better than chance at distinguishing between ill and well faces, possibly based on coloring […] Tetrachromacy could hold the key to such technology.”